Focus Areas for Tackling Pune’s Urbanization Challenges

Kishor Pate 2Kishor Pate, CMD – Amit Enterprises Housing Ltd.

Pune – one of the fastest- growing cities in India – is the seventh-largest metropolitan city of India, and the second-largest in Maharashtra.

Over the years, it has attained unprecedented momentum and dynamism on the back of its popularity both as an academic center and a business hub, with Information Technology having become the predominant industry driving its economy, job creation and real estate demand.

It goes without saying that Pune’s growth story is not a temporary phenomenon. The city will expand exponentially in the years to come, both geographically and economically. This will bring its own challenges with it, many of which are already manifest today.

To understand the challenges that urbanization poses to a city, one needs to examine the proportion of population and existing lack of social and physical infrastructure required to cater to the needs of this population.

Obviously, the areas where lack is evident will pose increasingly bigger problems if we assume that population growth is assured and inevitable.

Without a doubt, the city planning authorities are not blind to this. The massive influx of inward migrating population into Pune has catalyzed a major rush for infrastructure up-gradation on all fronts.

We are seeing a lot of efforts being put in to optimize road connectivity, parking facilities, public transport, electricity, waste management, water supply and land planning. Nevertheless, there is a need for increased pace and momentum.

The city is looking forward to the new regime to take urgent real-time steps to ensure that its citizens are not deprived of basic services. Some of the areas that need to be focused on are:

Traffic and transportation:

  • Use of advanced urban street designing for better roads, subways, walkways, overbridges and flyovers
  • Develop better public transport which can reduce usage of individual vehicles (there are 46 lakh vehicles on Pune’s roads every day)
  • Encourage carpooling and bike pooling initiatives. Encourage cycle-to-work concept, develop better accessible cycle tracks and discourage encroachment by motor traffic
  • Focus on Metro, which will significantly reduce the daily travel time for commuters
  • Address the mounting parking issues with more creative cost to parking in major areas, mechanized stacked parking facilities, etc.

Water supply management

Pune’s water supply – and its management – needs to be focused on priority. It has been estimated that about 30% of water is lost in distribution, the main causes being heavy leakages and imprudent household use.

The Government should encourage the use of water cards as already being seen in areas like Nanded, and similar progressive initiatives.

Solid waste and storm water management

  • Develop enough facilities to collect solid waste
  • Increase civic education on waste segregation and improve efficiency of garbage collection
  • Create organic compost systems which can be used for agricultural lands in nearby areas as fertilizer
  • Improve channelizing of drainage systems and storm water drains which released into mass water bodies. The city has only 44% tertiary drains, and the primary and secondary drains are increasingly obstructed by silt. The municipal authorities need to get more proactive on cleaning these drains regularly

Sewerage and waste water treatment

All developed and developing areas should have access to underground drains (UGDs). Pune’s existing sewerage treatment capacity is not efficient, and a large volume of untreated water is released into its rivers.

The Mula–Mutha rivers are polluted, as untreated domestic waste is being discharged into them. Likewise, Khadakwala Lake has also been polluted. Addressing these issues must become high-importance focus areas.


Sharp focus on housing

  • Encourage the development of more integrated townships with walk-to-work options
  • Encourage housing with open spaces for children and for Senior citizens
  • Create more affordable value homes / low-cost housing and SRA schemes to help curb slums proliferation in the city
  • Increase the pace of project completions via proactive policies to boost the availability of ready-to-move homes where they are needed the most. Given the massive increase in job opportunities in Pune, the supply of affordable, completed housing projects is insufficient when compared to under-construction projects
  • Step up infrastructure creation in the fringe areas with low real estate rates to encourage migration to these areas, and also develop commercial development of these areas to give them economic strength
  • Formulate and implement better zoning for commercial and residential usage
  • Encourage sustainable real estate practices such as mandatory use of solar panels, rainwater harvesting, etc. in new residential projects, and in older projects wherever and to the extent feasible

Modernize public safety

  • Encourage smart transportation with real-time tracking to ensure timely response to emergency situations. This includes geographically integrated systems for identifying caller location
  • Increase public safety with better city surveillance systems and video analytics

While Pune’s inclusion in the Smart City program will doubtlessly address some of these areas, the benefits will not be uniform across all of the city’s ever-expanding boundaries.

The vision of our city planning authorities must be all-encompassing and democratic to all regions. In particular, more attention needs to be given to the much-neglected gaothan areas which have not yet been included within the municipal limits because of various reasons.

In short, Pune must become a uniformly modern city, capable of handling urbanization growth – both now and in the future.

About The Author

Kishor Pate, Chairman & Managing Director of Amit Enterprises Housing Ltd. is the driving force behind one of the most successful real estate development firms in Pune and beyond. Apart from its signature luxury projects like Montecito in Sahakar Nagar and other premium gated townships, AEHL has also launched highly successful affordable housing projects like Astonia Classic and Colori in Undri and the Mediterranean-style township Astonia Royale in Ambegaon.

Image By Rsrikanth05Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, Link

5 Reasons Why Rainwater Harvesting Is Essential For Pune

Kishor Pate 2Kishor Pate, CMD – Amit Enterprises Housing Ltd.

Pune’s landlocked topography has made water a ultimately precious resource. The water crisis is becoming a serious issue both at the national and global levels, and in cities like Pune, the situation has reached a flash point. The city is seeing a constant influx of migrant population seeking employment in the city’s several industries.

Simultaneously, shallow lands are fast getting covered with landfills, and this has been reducing the number of water bodies available to the city’s residents. Deforestation has been another prime reason for the compounded water scarcity. While forests are being rapidly leveled for new avenues of construction, rainfall patterns too are shifting and getting unpredictable.

In the coming years, the bulk of the global population will be shifting to urban locations. This calls for a rapid development in real estate, and will also bring with it a high demand for natural resources like water.

Limited land necessitates the development of multi-storied residential buildings, and water is required for both the construction and maintenance of these building apart from providing for the daily necessities.

We know that the earth’s surface is 70% water. However, only a small portion of it is drinkable and mostly comes from fresh water sources like lakes, rivers and our underground water table. Rapid urban growth and rise in population will usher in a severely parched future in a scenario where water is needed for everything, ranging from farming to drinking to construction.

The only real solution available for regions like Pune is rainwater harvesting. Rainwater harvesting is getting more popular as a means to fight resource scarcity and is being increasingly practiced in both rural and urban areas.

The process involves collecting, filtering and storing rainwater to meet many residential and industrial needs. The equipment too is simple and includes collection funnels, filter units and storage tanks.

Rainwater is the cleanest source of freely available potable water. Practiced in urban residential projects, rainwater harvesting will be able to meet almost 50% of the city’s water needs. Households as well as commercial buildings can save a lot on their water bills.

Harvesting rainwater is not just about maximum utilization of a freely available resource but also about minimizing the impact of urban development on our natural surroundings. In fact, failure to harvest rainwater results not only in the obvious loss of a precious resource but also in heavy soil erosion.

The several advantages associated with rainwater harvesting include:

  1. Reduced demand for ground water

The water supply in urban homes comes from reservoirs that are fed by lakes and rivers. Treatment plants and pumping station also pump out the ground water, gradually reducing the available amount. In several Indian cities, the ground water table has already exhausted itself and rainwater is the only available solution.

For a city like Pune that is seeing tremendous residential and industrial growth, water for non-drinking purposes can readily come from rainwater. Large volumes of it can be used for cleaning, washing, toilet flushing and gardening. Similarly, industries can use rainwater to meet their production needs.

2. Backup water supply

Rainwater harvesting can be insurance for times when the regular water supply has been compromised. With climate change taking a major toll on the availability of naturally available water, rainwater can be of use during times of drought. Pune and Mumbai, in particular, must resort to rainwater harvesting on a war footing to minimize their dependency on reservoirs.

rainwater harvesting

3. Environment friendly

When a neighborhood starts using rainwater, the community as a whole will be able to fight the problems associated with runoffs, soil erosion and pressure on the drainage systems. Collecting rainwater would also mean reducing the chances of contamination that flows into our rivers and lakes.

Low-lying areas like Pune and Mumbai can also fight the chances of flooding by harvesting large volumes of rainwater. Rainwater harvesting, therefore, meets the needs of the environment and ensures that the city is less affected by chemicals that run off from our farms into our rivers.

4. Ease of implementation

A rainwater harvesting setup is easy to install and maintenance is not a big challenge. The purest form of water, rainwater also does not need very complicated purifying devices to meet our primary needs. Based on basic technologies of collection, filtering and storage, rainwater harvesting setups are worth the minimal initial expense and effort required to set them up in every way.

While the tools for rainwater harvesting can be used by anyone, there are some important facts to remember:

  • Identification of catchment areas that include terraces, car parking, roads and other concrete surfaces
  • Installation of gutters with filtration system that blocks debris on the outside
  • Channels that ensure a smooth flow to the storage system
  • Safety precautions against any kind of contamination, including the breeding of mosquitoes

5. Increasing support from the government

The incumbent Indian government has been rightly focusing on the water scarcity problem, and as a result has been facilitating several plans for rainwater harvesting. New apartment projects are now by law required to have rainwater harvesting systems in place and in several regions.

With rainfall getting scarcer every year, the government is looking to initiate special installations in residential societies, commercial buildings, educational institutions and other buildings. The increasing road coverage in the country also opens up an excellent avenue of rainwater collection for better use.

India’s Center for Science and Environment (CSE) is also creating programs to raise awareness for maximizing the use of rainwater harvesting across the country. It has been supporting several NGOs, consultancies and companies to educate people on what has been a traditional means of collecting and using rainwater for future purposes.

Today, rainwater harvesting should come automatically as a building standard. While builders are already getting aware, customers too should start asking for the same. In several areas, old building which were not integrated with harvesting systems should be reconstructed or retrofitted to support rainwater harvesting. This is by all means a vital measure that cannot wait longer.

About The Author

Kishor Pate, Chairman & Managing Director of Amit Enterprises Housing Ltd. is the driving force behind one of the most successful real estate development firms in Pune and beyond. Apart from its signature luxury homes towers and premium gated townships, AEHL has also launched highly successful affordable housing projects like Astonia Classic and Colori in Undri and the Mediterranean-style township Astonia Royale in Ambegaon.

What Makes A City Smart?

Kishor Pate 2Kishor Pate, CMD – Amit Enterprises Housing Ltd.

What makes a city, a great place to live and work in? The question is pertinent, given that by 2030, 5 billion people – or about 60% of the world’s entire population – will live in cities.

For countries like India and for the leaders who govern this country and plan our cities, not only accommodating the huge inward migration from the urban areas but also a life worth living has become a huge challenge.

People should be able to benefit from urbanization without having to wrestle with aging infrastructure and lack of amenities. Within the process of urbanization, people are struggling to maintain not only their livelihoods but also attain a modicum of happiness. Particularly in this era, everyone wants a better quality of life.

How can one measure this, if at all? What it boils down to is this – the smarter a city is, the happier its inhabitants will be. This is where the concept of Smart Cities came form in the first place, but ‘smartness’ when applied to an urban area is actually a much broader concept.

There are certain counts on which the performance of any city depends: its economy, its population and the social conditions they live in, and its environment. But there is yet another factor that plays a large role in the performance of a city – namely its leaders. A smart city has smart, innovative and resourceful people at the helm.

The inherent qualities of such a smart leadership are that it achieves and maintain smart growth, does more with less and is able to win support for change. A city that doesn’t change is dumb, not smart. Smart city leaders will consistently and successfully push for change.

Of course, every leader wants his city’s economy to grow and flourish. The problem is that economic growth will not always lead towards a better quality of life for citizens – in fact, it can stifle it. We know that in India, economic growth without the benefit of ‘smart direction’ can rapidly lead to compromised infrastructure, unhealthy environment and the unregulated real estate developments in the form of slums and illegally constructed housing.

Smart cities are those that have taken extensive and determined preventive measures against these known side-effects effects of economic growth.

Smart City Concept

Smart growth is always an outcome of a strategic and well-planned approach. While planning a city, it is essential to keep the needs and demands of its population, now and in the future, first and foremost in mind.

Offering tax breaks to tempt newcomers into the city are all very well, but if such initiatives are not accompanied by measures such as pollution control, a forward-looking infrastructure support and timely technological interventions, the city will grow economically but fail as an inhabitable area.

In a smart city, the areas which need the most attention will be the primary focus of its leaders. The first step to this is to recognize the city’s competitive advantages, identify the clusters that are in need of strengthening or nurturing, and apply funding and action into those areas.

Even where a city has so far been following a ‘dumb’ approach to growth, such an approach can eventually make it smart. It can become future-ready. When it comes to cities, one must always plan for change – always plan for the future. Nothing is lost to the past if the future is planned for intelligent change.

In the current environment of fast-paced technological innovation and research and development, the path of relying on ‘tried and tested’ formulae of urban planning is the road to extinction.

About The Author

Kishor Pate, Chairman & Managing Director of Amit Enterprises Housing Ltd. is the driving force behind one of the most successful real estate development firms in Pune and beyond. Apart from its signature luxury homes towers and premium gated townships, AEHL has also launched highly successful affordable housing projects like Astonia Classic and Colori in Undri and the Mediterranean-style township Astonia Royale in Ambegaon.


Welcoming The Era Of Smart Cities

Kishor Pate 2Kishor Pate, CMD – Amit Enterprises Housing Ltd

Today, there is little doubt that the Indian economy has the potential to become the most successful one globally. However, its overall development has historically been shanghaied by lack of political will and the very slow growth of our infrastructure.

With the arrival of the Modi Government, we can at last look forward to a more proactive approach to infrastructure development, which will definitely help in bringing on a new era of progress and change in India.

Among the most promising initiatives of the NaMo Government is the Smart Cities program. Recently, Pune has been added to the list of Smart Cities to receive the incentives under this plan, which effectively means that it will be provided central assistance to the tune of Rs 100 crore per year for the specific purpose of deploying infrastructure projects which will have definite and distinct larger public benefit.

Pune, the city as we know it today, is now on the verge of complete transformation. We are looking at a city that will literally be reinvented.

Over time, Pune will see the arrival of assured electricity and water supply for every citizen, high-grade sanitation, pedestrian-friendly footpaths, non-motorised transport zones reserved exclusively for walking and cycling, vastly improved traffic management including smart parking solutions, more open spaces and encroachment-free public areas, and many other benefits.

But infrastructure is only one aspect. Among the several advantages of smart cities is the generation of employment – the single-most important element that can support the overall growth of the Indian economy.


Also, smart cities bring in massive amount of investment, apart from creating healthy and comfortable living conditions for millions of people. And – very importantly – smart cities will have a tremendous boosting power for the the Indian real estate sector.

The Introduction Of Smart Cities In India

The initiative for smart cities began when Mr. Arun Jaitley, the finance minister, allocated Rs. 7060 crore in the last Union Budget to create of transform 100 cities into smart cities. The potential investments into these smart cities would cause India to reach heights that no other country in the world has touched so far.

Actually, a budget of Rs. 70 crore for every city falls quite short of what it would take to build an actual smart city – we are not just talking about mere townships. Mr. Jaitley has clarified that this budget is just the seed money require to trigger the work; the actual corpus of funds will have to be generated in collaboration with the private sector.

This means participation by corporate and individual investors, who will supply the bulk of funding required to build smart cities from the ground up, or to transform existing cities into smart cities.

What Are Smart Cities All About?

Smart cities, by definition, are all about:

• Smart governance
• Smart buildings
• Smart energy
• Smart technology
• Smart infrastructure
• Smart mobility
• Smart healthcare
• Smart citizens

Every one of these parameters would require the private sector to offer technical expertise and manpower. It is estimated that by 2030, in excess of 600 million people will migrate to India’s urban landscape and smart cities would be the only solution to reduce the chaos. Further, going smart will support cleaner living standards, health and productivity without burdening our already depleting natural resources.

The success of smart cities will ultimately depend on the people running them. They will be responsible for the utilities like power, water, gas, etc. Smart cities will also provide an adequate number of hospitals, schools, workplace hubs, hotels and entertainment complexes. Overall, these cities should promote a completely optimized urban experience.

Smart cities will invariably change the very face of the Indian economy. Globally, there are just 26 smart cities and the Indian Government is now aiming to add four times this number. Consequently, there is an express need to boost important sectors like information technology, manufacturing and development.

About The Author

Kishor Pate, Chairman & Managing Director of Amit Enterprises Housing Ltd. is the driving force behind one of the most successful real estate development firms in Pune and beyond. Apart from its signature luxury homes towers and premium gated townships, AEHL has also launched highly successful affordable housing projects like Astonia Classic and Colori in Undri and the Mediterranean-style township Astonia Royale in Ambegaon.

How PMRDA Can Power Up Pune Real Estate

Kishor Pate 2Kishor Pate, CMD – Amit Enterprises Housing Ltd.

The formation of the Pune Metropolitan Region Development Authority (PMRDA) is a very positive step. This model, which has already worked very well in Mumbai’s MMRDA, has so far not been able to see implementation in Pune despite being tabled several times.

Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis is rightfully determined to see it through and make sure that it can meet its intended objectives. His intervention is indeed very timely.

Boost To Infrastructure Projects

Among many other things, key infrastructure projects such as the Metro rail and the Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) must be fast-tracked so as to aid to overall development of the city, and the PMRDA will focus on achieving this.

PMRDA will act as a unified platform for planning and execution of these and other important projects, and will serve to resolve disagreements between various planning authorities. In short, the process of project implementation will be rendered faster and less cumbersome.

PMRDA will ensure that the related planning departments are adequately staffed and funded, and it will also play a major role in addressing the issue of illegal constructions in the emerging areas of Pune district.

Revitalizing Pune’s Regional Plan

One of its first and foremost functions will in fact be to update Pune’s Regional Plan and to make sure that this plan addresses the current problems being faced in Pune’s emerging areas. PMRDA will have jurisdiction of close to 3000 square kilometres, which will include PMC and PCMC and various gram panchayats.

The implementation of PMRDA will, in fact, mark the end of the Pimpri-Chinchwad New Township Development Authority (PCNTDA). To date, the PCNTDA has done an exemplary job in creating a highly organized development environment in Pradhikaran; however, the benefits of its efforts were limited to the area of its jurisdiction. The PMRDA aims to bring the same results over a much larger operational domain.


It is, however, a matter of concern that the Pune, Khadki and Dehu cantonment boards have been taken out of its ambit as per a recent declaration. I am not certain how the PMRDA will be able to operate to its best potential and work towards a well-rounded development plan for the city without including these key cantonment areas, as well.

The Ahmedabad Model

PMRDA intends to use land banking and transfer as a source of revenue generation, effectively creating its own projects and fully enabling land parcels with support infrastructure before selling these for commercial use.

Thanks to be infrastructure, the value of these land parcels rises significantly, to the tune of 25-30% This is an excellent model has already been very successfully used in Ahmedabad.

This is a near-perfect model for development in the Indian context, since it brings with it a high level of transparency and governance into every aspects of urban and rural planning.

It results in win-win situation for every stakeholder involved in the urban development process, including land owners, real estate developers, real estate end-users and, of course, the Government.

About The Author

Kishor Pate, Chairman & Managing Director of Amit Enterprises Housing Ltd. is the driving force behind one of the most successful real estate development firms in Pune and beyond. Apart from its signature luxury homes towers and premium gated townships, AEHL has also launched highly successful affordable housing projects like Astonia Classic and Colori in Undri and the Mediterrenean-style township Astonia Royale in Ambegaon.

Making Pune India’s IT Capital

Kishor Pate 2Kishor Pate, CMD – Amit Enterprises Housing Ltd.

Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis’ announcement of his intention to make Pune the IT capital of India has brought mixed reactions. However, this is not a Utopian dream but in fact becoming a reality even as we speak. Pune and information technology are already inseparable concepts today, and all it will take is a decisive push by the BJP government to establish it as the country’s foremost IT hub.

Pune is already a well-established IT destination, and has been giving the likes of Bangalore and Hyderabad very tough competition. The burgeoning IT industry in areas like Kharadi, Hinjewadi, Magarpatta and Tathawade are drawing massive amounts of information technology business into the city. This has also had a major impact on the city’s real estate sector.

Pune has over 50 established and prominent IT/ITeS companies who have their main offices in the city, including organizations such as Accenture, Amdocs, AtoS, Capgemini, Cognizant, Deloitte, GlobalLogic, Hexaware Technologies, Infosys, Larsen & Toubro Infotech, Mastek, MphasiS, SunGard and Symantec. These companies are generating scores of jobs for Pune’s highly qualified software professionals each year, in addition to hundreds of BPO jobs.

It is by now a well-established fact that Pune is one of the most preferred software and business-process outsourcing destinations in the country. There are many reasons for this beyond the wealth of IT professionals that it produces from its various top-notch educational institutions every year.

eon freezone pune
Eon IT Park, Kharadi

Information technology companies prefer Pune over a city Bangalore because of the lower real estate costs involved in setting up operations here. In fact, the more rational real estate costs in Pune provide another major plus-point. This is the fact that IT/ITeS employees who are looking at buying their own homes can easily avail of home loans and buy properties in the city which are conveniently close to the companies they work in, even on entry salaries.

Moreover, the city is replete with attractive rental options. In fact, Pune has the highest incidence of IT/ITeS professionals who start out in rented homes and graduate to purchasing homes in the city later on. Pune’s affordable housing rates are not the only factor at play in this dynamic. The city is also far more attractive in terms of the overall lifestyle quotient it offers, where it once again beats Bangalore hands down.

Another factor which is very important from an attrition management point of view is that commuting is not a big problem when compared to cities like Mumbai, Bangalore and Delhi NCR. Pune is a relatively compact city, and this ensures that employees can travel to and from work easily. This plays a very significant role in talent retention and overall employee satisfaction. Pune’s IT professionals are a far more contented lot than in any other Indian city.

Finally, IT/ITeS firms are attracted to Pune because it offers significant cost arbitrage on salary outgoings, specifically in terms of the dearness allowances payable to employees in various cities. In this respect, Pune presents a favourable proposition as it does not max out on the cost of living index the way cities like Bangalore and Mumbai do. For example, housing rental costs in Bangalore are 13.5% higher than in Pune. Though individual purchasing power in Bangalore is higher by around 3.5%, a large part of an employee’s income is spent on paying rent.

It could be argued that as chief minister of Maharashtra, Devendra Fadnavis should not ignore Mumbai. However, the financial capital capital’s rating on the cost of living index – which, as already stated, plays a big role in a firm’s capex on salaries, is way off the charts. Housing rentals are as much as 55.5% higher in Mumbai than in Pune, while purchasing power in Pune is about 43.5% higher than in Mumbai.

All these factors mean that in Pune, Devendra Fadnavis has definitely backed the right horse in the race for IT prominence in Maharashtra. Pune will eventually overtake every other city in the information technology sweepstakes, and there is no time like the present to stack all bets in this city’s favour.

A New Era Of Infrastructure-Driven Real Estate

Kishor Pate 2Kishor Pate, CMD – Amit Enterprises Housing Ltd

With the BJP now elected into power, there are high expectations for the Indian infrastructure industry to take off in all earnestness. This is a very important development for real estate, since the sector cannot grow without the implementation of modern infrastructure projects.

The state of infrastructure of a country is a direct indicator of how well its urban systems work. Also, all activity that is related to industries, business, professions or indeed any activity that contributes to the sustenance of cities and individuals depends on how well the infrastructure system works. However, the problem that India has so far been facing on the infrastructure front is far more complex than it seems at first glance.

Urban infrastructure is obviously not a singular concept. It includes various services and facilities like roads, water and electricity supply, waste disposal, healthcare and education services, communications, etc. But in a country like India, housing must also be seen as an integral part of the infrastructure.

All infrastructure is basically geared towards making a city more inhabitable and economically viable. But without sufficient housing to accommodate the very people that infrastructure is meant to serve, the entire concept becomes hollow and meaningless.

This is the reason why the Indian real estate industry has for so long been campaigning for being declared as an industry rather than a mere business vertical. It is also the reason why housing in India needs to be given infrastructure status.

The Indian real estate industry is depending heavily on the new government to make these extremely important changes and allow the sector to grow on the back of the corresponding incentives to developers and buyers.

infrastructure highway construction

It is also important that the numerous infrastructure projects that have been pending because of mercenary bureaucratic tangles be either launched or completed in the shortest possible time. There has never been a lack of funding for these projects.

At various points in time, bilateral and multilateral agencies such as the KFW, the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have offered to back infrastructure projects in India.

However, what has been missing is effective deployment of such funds. This calls a firm consensus at the political and policy-making levels, which have been notably absent from the picture so far. Also, the proof of effective policy reforms lies in their implementation, not in their drafting.

Therefore, the challenge for the new government lies in bringing about a width and depth in infrastructure-related policies, markets and economic milieu that allow the optimal utilization of available funds at the State level.

Since its mandate on these issues is non-ambiguous and decisive, we have every reason to believe that the new government will address the problems related to infrastructure in the country, and that we will be seeing encouraging developments on this front in the future.

Image courtesy of franky242 /